# Piecewise Regression in R

The Piecewise Regression is used when there are clear breakpoints in data. This tutorial demonstrates how to perform piecewise regression in R.

## Piecewise Regression in R

When there are clear breakpoints in data, the regression which will work will be the piecewise regression. The piecewise regression is the step-by-step process as demonstrated below:

• ##### Visualize the final piecewise regression model using the `plot()` method.

Now let’s try an example using the above steps. See example:

``````#Step 1
#create the DataFrame
Year    Stopped
2015    973
2016    1025
2017    1151
2018    1384
2019    4507
2020    15557

#first six rows of the data frame

#Step2
#fit the simple linear regression model
dput(names(data))
q.lm <- lm(log(Stopped) ~ Year, data)
summary(q.lm)

#Step3
#fit the piecewise regression model to original model,
#estimating a breakpoint at x=14
install.packages('segmented')
library(segmented)

o <- segmented(q.lm, seg.Z = ~Year, psi = 2018)

# view the summary
summary(o)

#Step4
# visulize the piecewise regression model
plot(o)
points(log(Stopped) ~ Year, data)
``````

The code above creates a piecewise regression model for the persons who stopped studies during different years. The code has a few outputs, which are described below:

The Output for Step 1:

``````  Year Stopped
1 2015     973
2 2016    1025
3 2017    1151
4 2018    1384
5 2019    4507
6 2020   15557
``````

It shows the head of the data.

The Output for Step 2:

``````Call:
lm(formula = log(Stopped) ~ Year, data = data)

Residuals:
1        2        3        4        5        6
0.50759  0.03146 -0.38079 -0.72463 -0.07216  0.63853

Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept) -1057.9257   279.3081  -3.788   0.0193 *
Year            0.5282     0.1384   3.815   0.0189 *
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 0.5791 on 4 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.7844,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.7305
F-statistic: 14.56 on 1 and 4 DF,  p-value: 0.01886
``````

This shows the summary for the linear regression model.

The Output for Step 3:

``````***Regression Model with Segmented Relationship(s)***

Call:
segmented.lm(obj = q.lm, seg.Z = ~Year, psi = 2018)

Estimated Break-Point(s):
Est. St.Err
psi1.Year 2017.91  0.039

Meaningful coefficients of the linear terms:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept) -162.39260   35.56716  -4.566   0.0448 *
Year           0.08400    0.01764   4.761   0.0414 *
U1.Year        1.12577    0.02495  45.121       NA
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 0.02495 on 2 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-Squared: 0.9998,  Adjusted R-squared: 0.9995

Boot restarting based on 6 samples. Last fit:
Convergence attained in 1 iterations (rel. change 3.7909e-16)
``````

This fits the piecewise regression model and shows the summary for the model. The model detects a breakpoint in the year 2017.91.

The Output for Step 4: It visualizes the piecewise regression model. The plot shows that the piecewise regression model fits the given data quite well.

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