# Square Root in Python

Manav Narula Oct 10, 2023

For a given number, its square root is a number whose square is equal to this number.

In Python, we can calculate the square root of a number using built-in functions and operators, which will be discussed in this tutorial.

## Use the `math.sqrt()` to Calculate the Square Root of a Number in Python

The `math` module has different functions to perform mathematical operations in Python. The `sqrt()` function returns the square root of a positive number. For example:

``````import math

print(math.sqrt(16))
``````

Output:

``````4.0
``````

We can also calculate the square root of a list of numbers using this function. We iterate through the list using a `for` loop and apply the `math.sqrt()` function to each element. See the below example code.

``````import math

a = [4, 2, 6]
b = []

for i in a:
b.append(math.sqrt(i))
print(b)
``````

Output:

``````[2.0, 1.4142135623730951, 2.449489742783178]
``````

## Use the `pow()` Function to Calculate the Square Root of a Number in Python

The square root of a number is nothing but the number raised to power 0.5. The `pow()` function in Python returns the value of a number raised to some specified power and can be used to calculate the square root of a number as shown below. The first parameter of the `pow()` function is the base, and the second one is the exponent.

``````print(pow(9, 0.5))
``````

Output:

``````3.0
``````

## Use the `**` Operator to Calculate the Square Root of a Number in Python

The `**` operator performs the same function as the `pow` method. We can use it to calculate the square root of a number as shown below.

``````print(9 ** (0.5))
``````

Output:

``````3.0
``````

## Use the `cmath.sqrt()` to Calculate the Square Root of a Number in Python

The `cmath` module has methods to deal with complex numbers. The `cmath.sqrt()` returns the square-root of negative or imaginary numbers. For example:

``````import cmath

x = -16
print(cmath.sqrt(x))
``````

Output:

``````4j
``````

## Use the `numpy.sqrt()` Method to Calculate the Square Root of a Number in Python

The `numpy.sqrt()` method can calculate the square root of all the elements in a data object like a list or an array at once. It returns an array that contains the square root of all the elements. For example:

``````import numpy as np

a = [4, 2, 6]
print(np.sqrt(a))
``````

Output:

``````[2.         1.41421356 2.44948974]
``````
Author: Manav Narula

Manav is a IT Professional who has a lot of experience as a core developer in many live projects. He is an avid learner who enjoys learning new things and sharing his findings whenever possible.