Pandas DataFrame DataFrame.merge() Function

  1. Syntax of pandas.DataFrame.merge():
  2. Example Codes: DataFrame.merge()function to Merge Two DataFrames
  3. Example Codes: Set how Parameter in the merge Method to Merge DataFrames Using Various Techniques
  4. Example Codes:Merge Only Specific Columns Using DataFrame.merge()function in Pandas
  5. Example Codes:Use Index as the Join Keys for Merging DataFrames DataFrame.merge() Function

Python Pandas DataFrame.merge() function merges DataFrame or named Series objects.

Syntax of pandas.DataFrame.merge():

 DataFrame.merge(right, 
                 how='inner', 
                 on=None, 
                 left_on=None, 
                 right_on=None, 
                 left_index=False, 
                 right_index=False, 
                 sort=False, 
                 suffixes='_x', '_y', 
                 copy=True, 
                 indicator=False, 
                 validate=None) 

Parameters

right DataFrame or named Series. Object to merge with
how left, right,inner or outer. How to perform merge operation
on label or list. Column or index names to merge
left_on label or list. Column or index names to merge in the left DataFrame
right_on label or list. Column or index names to merge in the right DataFrame
left_index Boolean. Use the index from the left DataFrame as the join key(left_index=True)
right_index Boolean. Use the index from the right DataFrame as the join key(right_index=True)
sort Boolean. Sort the join keys alphabetically in the output(sort=True)
suffixes Suffix to be applied to overlapping column names in the left and right side, respectively
copy Boolean. Avoid copy for copy=False
indicator add a column to output DataFrame called _merge with information on the source of each row(indicator=True) and a column named string will be added to output DataFrame(indicator=string)
validate parameter to check if the merge is of a specified type.

Return

It returns a DataFrame merging the given objects.

Example Codes: DataFrame.merge()function to Merge Two DataFrames


import pandas as pd
df1 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                    ["Suraj","Zeppy","Alish","Sarah"],
                    'Working Hours':
                    [1, 2, 3, 5]})
df2 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                   ["Suraj","Zack","Alish","Raphel"],
                    'Pay': [5, 6, 7, 8]})

print("1st DataFrame:")
print(df1)
print("2nd DataFrame:")
print(df2)

merged_df=df1.merge(df2)
print("Merged DataFrame:")
print(merged_df)

Output:

1st DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours
0  Suraj              1
1  Zeppy              2
2  Alish              3
3  Sarah              5
2nd DataFrame:
     Name  Pay
0   Suraj    5
1    Zack    6
2   Alish    7
3  Raphel    8
Merged DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours  Pay
0  Suraj              1    5
1  Alish              3    7

It merges df1 and df2 to a single DataFrame using the inner-join technique of SQL.

For the inner-join method, we must ensure there is at least one column common to both DataFrames.

Here, the merge() function will join the rows having the same values of the common column to both DataFrames.

Example Codes: Set how Parameter in the merge Method to Merge DataFrames Using Various Techniques


import pandas as pd
df1 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                    ["Suraj","Zeppy","Alish","Sarah"],
                    'Working Hours':
                    [1, 2, 3, 5]})
df2 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                   ["Suraj","Zack","Alish","Raphel"],
                    'Pay': [5, 6, 7, 8]})

print("1st DataFrame:")
print(df1)
print("2nd DataFrame:")
print(df2)

merged_df=df1.merge(df2,how='right')
print("Merged DataFrame:")
print(merged_df)

Output:

1st DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours
0  Suraj              1
1  Zeppy              2
2  Alish              3
3  Sarah              5
2nd DataFrame:
     Name  Pay
0   Suraj    5
1    Zack    6
2   Alish    7
3  Raphel    8
Merged DataFrame:
     Name  Working Hours  Pay
0   Suraj            1.0    5
1   Alish            3.0    7
2    Zack            NaN    6
3  Raphel            NaN   8 

It merges df1 and df2 to a single DataFrame using the right-join technique of SQL.

Here, the merge() function returns all rows from the right DataFrame. However, the rows only present in the left DataFrame will get the NaN value.

Similarly, we can also use left and outer values of the how parameter.

Example Codes:Merge Only Specific Columns Using DataFrame.merge()function in Pandas

import pandas as pd
df1 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                    ["Suraj","Zeppy","Alish","Sarah"],
                    'Working Hours':
                    [1, 2, 3, 5],
                   "Position":["Salesman","CEO","Manager","Sales Head"]})
df2 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                   ["Suraj","Zack","Alish","Raphel"],
                    "Pay": [5, 6, 7, 8],
                   "Position":["Salesman","CEO","Manager","Sales Head"]})

print("1st DataFrame:")
print(df1)
print("2nd DataFrame:")
print(df2)

merged_df=df1.merge(df2,on="Name")
print("Merged DataFrame:")
print(merged_df)

Output:


1st DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours    Position
0  Suraj              1    Salesman
1  Zeppy              2         CEO
2  Alish              3     Manager
3  Sarah              5  Sales Head
2nd DataFrame:
     Name  Pay    Position
0   Suraj    5    Salesman
1    Zack    6         CEO
2   Alish    7     Manager
3  Raphel    8  Sales Head
Merged DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours Position_x  Pay Position_y
0  Suraj              1   Salesman    5   Salesman
1  Alish              3    Manager    7    Manager

It merges only the Name column of df1 and df2. Since the default join method is inner-join only the common rows to both DataFrame will be joined. The position column is common to both DataFrames and hence two-position columns viz. Position_x and Position_y.

By default, _x and _y suffixes are appended to the name pf position column. We can specify suffixes using the suffixes parameter.

df1 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                    ["Suraj","Zeppy","Alish","Sarah"],
                    'Working Hours':
                    [1, 2, 3, 5],
                   "Position":["Salesman","CEO","Manager","Sales Head"]})
df2 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                   ["Suraj","Zack","Alish","Raphel"],
                    "Pay": [5, 6, 7, 8],
                   "Position":["Salesman","CEO","Manager","Sales Head"]})

print("1st DataFrame:")
print(df1)
print("2nd DataFrame:")
print(df2)

merged_df=df1.merge(df2,on="Name",suffixes=('_left', '_right'))
print("Merged DataFrame:")
print(merged_df)

Output:

1st DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours    Position
0  Suraj              1    Salesman
1  Zeppy              2         CEO
2  Alish              3     Manager
3  Sarah              5  Sales Head
2nd DataFrame:
     Name  Pay    Position
0   Suraj    5    Salesman
1    Zack    6         CEO
2   Alish    7     Manager
3  Raphel    8  Sales Head
Merged DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours Position_left  Pay Position_right
0  Suraj              1      Salesman    5       Salesman
1  Alish              3       Manager    7        Manager

Example Codes:Use Index as the Join Keys for Merging DataFrames DataFrame.merge() Function

import pandas as pd
df1 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                    ["Suraj","Zeppy","Alish","Sarah"],
                    'Working Hours':
                    [1, 2, 3, 5],
                   "Position":["Salesman","CEO","Manager","Sales Head"]})
df2 = pd.DataFrame({"Name":
                   ["Suraj","Zack","Alish","Raphel"],
                    "Pay": [5, 6, 7, 8],
                   "Position":["Salesman","CEO","Manager","Sales Head"]})

print("1st DataFrame:")
print(df1)
print("2nd DataFrame:")
print(df2)

merged_df=df1.merge(df2,left_index=True,right_index=True,suffixes=("_left","_right"))
print("Merged DataFrame:")
print(merged_df)

Output:


1st DataFrame:
    Name  Working Hours    Position
0  Suraj              1    Salesman
1  Zeppy              2         CEO
2  Alish              3     Manager
3  Sarah              5  Sales Head
2nd DataFrame:
     Name  Pay    Position
0   Suraj    5    Salesman
1    Zack    6         CEO
2   Alish    7     Manager
3  Raphel    8  Sales Head
Merged DataFrame:
  Name_left  Working Hours Position_left Name_right  Pay Position_right
0     Suraj              1      Salesman      Suraj    5       Salesman
1     Zeppy              2           CEO       Zack    6            CEO
2     Alish              3       Manager      Alish    7        Manager
3     Sarah              5    Sales Head     Raphel    8     Sales Head

It merges the corresponding rows of two DataFrames without considering column similarities. If the same column name appears on both DataFrame, the suffixes are attached to column names and made different columns after merging.

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