# Natural Logarithm in R

Logarithm, the inverse of the exponential, is very useful in solving complex non-linear exponential solutions.

The `log()`

function in R returns the natural logarithmic values. The `log10()`

and the `log2()`

functions have base 10 and 2 respectively. The following code snippet shows the use of these functions:

```
log(5)
[1] 1.609438
log10(5)
[1] 0.69897
log2(5)
[1] 2.321928
```

We can also specify the base in the `log()`

function using the `base`

parameter. The following example computes the log value of 5 with base 3:

```
log(5,3)
[1] 1.464974
```

The `log1p()`

function is also available in R, and it computes the natural logarithmic value of `1+n`

, where n is the value passed to the function. The following example computes the log value of `1+4`

:

```
log1p(4)
[1] 1.609438
```

Depending on the value and base of the logarithmic value required, we can also use them in equations. A sample equation is shown below:

```
y ~ a + b + log(10/x)
```