Python File Directory Operation

In Python, if you perform operations on directories, you need import the os module. The functions of os module can be used to do file and directory operations.

Create a directory:

A new directory can be created by using mkdir() method. You have to specify the path in which you want to create the directory. If the path is not specified, the directory will be created in current directory.

>>> import os
>>> os.mkdir("PythonTutorials")

A new directory named PythonTutorials will be created in the current working directory.

Get current directory:

getcwd() method is used to get the current working directory,

>>> import os
>>> print(os.getcwd())
C:\Users\HP\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36-32

List directories:

To list the files and subdirectories, listdir() method is used. It lists the files and subdirectories of the Python script file if there is no argument given. Otherwise, it lists the content of the given path.

>>> import os
>>> print(os.listdir())
['DLLs', 'Doc', 'get-pip.py', 'hello.py', 'include', 'Lib', 'libs', 'LICENSE.txt', 'NEWS.txt', 'python.exe', 'python3.dll', 'python36.dll', 'pythonw.exe', 'Scripts', 'tcl', 'Tools', 'vcruntime140.dll']
>>> print(os.listdir(r"C:\Program Files"))
['7-Zip', 'Common Files', 'Microsoft Office', 'Windows Sidebar']

Change working directory:

To change the current working directory, chdir() method is used.

>>> import os
>>> os.chdir("C:/Users/HP/Desktop/Code")
>>> print(os.getcwd())
C:\Users\HP\Desktop\Code

Rename and remove a directory:

Rename a directory:

A file or directory can be renamed by using rename() function.

>>> import os
>>> os.rename("PythonTutorials", "Python")

The new name of the directory is Python now.

Remove a directory:

A directory can be removed by using rmdir() method.

>>> import os
>>> os.rmdir('Python')

It removes the directory Python from the system.