In this section, you will learn number data type in Python programming and the mathematical operations that you can perform on these numbers. Further, you will learn how to convert from one data type to another.
Python Number Data Type
The number data type in Python include:
- Floating point numbers
- Complex numbers
Integer numbers do not have any fractional/decimal part.
Floating point numbers contain a decimal part.
Complex numbers have a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers are in the form
x + yj, where
x is the real part and
yj is the imaginary part.
type() is used to get the data type of a variable or more generally, an object. The function
isinstance() is used to check if the variable belongs to a particular class or not.
x = 3 print("type of", x, "is", type(x)) x = 3.23 print("type of", x, "is", type(x)) x = 3+3j print("is", x, "a complex number:", isinstance(x, complex))
type of 3 is <class 'int'> type of 3.23 is <class 'float'> is (3+3j) a complex number: True
Integer numbers can be of any length but the floating point numbers should only be up to 15 decimal places.
The integers could also be represented binary (base 2), hexadecimal (base 16) and octal (base 8) format. This can be done by using prefixes. Check the table below:
>>> print(0b110) 6 >>> print(0xFA) 250 >>> print(0o12) 10
Python Number Type Conversion
Implicit Type Conversion
If you add one number of
float type and one another number of
int type, the result’s type will be
int is converted to
>>> 2 + 3.0 5.0
Here, 2 is an integer which is converted to float implicitly and you have 2.0.
This implicit type conversion is also called coercion.
Explicit Type Conversion
You could also do explicit number data type conversion using functions like
>>> x = 8 >>> print("Value of x = ", int(x)) Value of x = 8 >>> print("Converted Value of x = ", float(x)) Converted Value of x = 8.0
If you want to convert
float value to
int value then the decimal part will be truncated.
Python Fractional Numbers
A module named
fractions is used to perform operations which involves fractional number.
fractions module could represent a fractional number as
import fractions print(fractions.Fraction(0.5))
Fraction function of the
fractions module will convert the decimal into fractions and then you can perform mathematical operations on these fractions:
print(Fraction(0.5) + Fraction(1.5)) print(Fraction(0.5) * Fraction(1.5)) print(Fraction(0.5) / Fraction(1.5))
2 3/4 1/3