# NumPy Tutorial - NumPy Array Creation

## Zeros Array

`np.zeros`

`np.zeros`

is used to create the array that all the elements is `0`

. Its syntax is,

```
np.zeros(shape, dtype=float, order="C")
```

Where,

`shape`

is the size of the matrix, and it could be 1-D, 2-D or multiple dimensions.

`dtype`

is `float64`

by default, but could be assigned with any data type in `NumPy`

.

Let’s create some zeros arrays

```
>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.zeros(5) # it creates a 1D array with 5 zeros
array([0., 0., 0., 0., 0.])
>>> np.zeros(5, dtype='int8') # it creates a 1D array with 5 zeros with the data type of int8
array([0, 0, 0, 0, 0], dtype=int8)
>>> np.zeros((4, 3)) # it creates a 4x3 zeros array
array([[0., 0., 0.],
[0., 0., 0.],
[0., 0., 0.],
[0., 0., 0.]])
```

`np.empty`

In some cases, you only want to initialize an array with the specified shape and u don’t care about the initialization data inside. You can use `np.empty`

to achieve faster initialization, but keep in mind that it does not guarantee the value of created array is 0.

We could use `%timeit`

to compare the execution time of `np.empty()`

and `np.zeros()`

,

```
In[1]: % timeit np.empty((100, 100))
715 ns ± 11.6 ns per loop(mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000000 loops each)
In[2]: % timeit np.zeros((100, 100))
4.03 µs ± 104 ns per loop(mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 100000 loops each)
```

Obviously, `np.empty()`

is much faster than `np.zeros()`

in initialization. It takes only about `17.5%`

of time needed for `np.zeros()`

to initialize an array with the shape of `(100, 100)`

.

`np.zeros_like`

Suppose we already have an array and want to create a zeros array that has the same shape. We could use the traditional way to create this new array.

```
test = np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]])
np.zeros(test.shape)
```

Or we could use the dedicated method - `np.zeros_like()`

to create the new array more efficiently.

```
x = np.zeros_like(test)
```

`np.zeros_like()`

has not only the same shape with the given array but also the same data type as it.## Ones Array

`np.ones`

Similar to `zeros`

, we could also create the array filled with ones. The syntax and parameters of `np.ones()`

are identical to `np.zeros()`

.

```
>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.ones(5) # it creates a 1-D array with 5 ones
array([1., 1., 1., 1., 1.])
>>> np.ones(5, dtype='int8') # it creates a 1-D array with 5 ones, and its data type is int8
array([1, 1, 1, 1, 1], dtype=int8)
>>> np.ones((4, 3)) # it creates an array of (4, 3) shape
array([[1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1.]])
```

`np.ones_like`

Similar to `np.zeros_like`

, `np.ones_like`

could be used to create a new array of ones with the same shape as given array.

```
>>> test = np.array([[1.0,2.0,3.0],[4.0,5.0,6.0],[7.0,8.0,9.0]])
>>> np.ones_like(test)
array([[1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1.]])
```

## Diagonal Array

Diagonal array is the 2-D array with ones on the diagonal and zeros elsewhere. It could be created with `np.eye()`

method whose syntax is,

```
np.eye(N, M=None, k=0, dtype= < class 'float' >, order='C')
```

Where,

parameter | type of data | Summary |
---|---|---|

`N` |
INT | Specifies the number of rows in the generated matrix. |

`M` |
INT | (Optional) The default is `None` . Specifies the number of columns in the matrix to be generated. When it is `None` , it is equal to `N` . |

`k` |
INT | (Optional) The default is 0. 0 is the main diagonal position. If `k` is positive, it creates upper diagonal with the displacement of `k` ; if `k` is negative, it creates lower diagonal with the displacement of `-k` . |

`dtype` |
type of data | (Optional) The default value is `float` . It specifies the data type of the element of the created array. |

`np.eye()`

Example

```
>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.eye(3)
array([[1., 0., 0.],
[0., 1., 0.],
[0., 0., 1.]])
>>> np.eye(4, 3)
array([[1., 0., 0.],
[0., 1., 0.],
[0., 0., 1.],
[0., 0., 0.]])
>>> np.eye(3, 4)
array([[1., 0., 0., 0.],
[0., 1., 0., 0.],
[0., 0., 1., 0.]])
>>> np.eye(4, k=1)
array([[0., 1., 0., 0.],
[0., 0., 1., 0.],
[0., 0., 0., 1.],
[0., 0., 0., 0.]])
```

`np.identity()`

`np.identity`

could be treated as special `np.eye`

because it creates a square diagonal array with ones on the main diagonal.

```
numpy.identity(n, dtype = float)
```

parameter | type of data | Description |
---|---|---|

`n` |
INT | Specifies the size of the matrix to be generated. It creates an `N×N` square array. |

`dtype` |
type of data | (Optional) The default is float. It specifies the data type of the element. |

`np.identity()`

Examples

```
>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.identity(3)
array([[1., 0., 0.],
[0., 1., 0.],
[0., 0., 1.]])
```

## Triangular Array

You could use `np.tri()`

to create a triangular array. Its syntax is,

```
numpy.tri(N, M=None, k=0, dtype= < class 'float' >)
```

Its input parameters are similar to `np.eye()`

.

`np.tri()`

Examples

```
>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.tri(3)
array([[1., 0., 0.],
[1., 1., 0.],
[1., 1., 1.]])
>>> np.tri(4, k=1)
array([[1., 1., 0., 0.],
[1., 1., 1., 0.],
[1., 1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1., 1.]])
```

**Jinku Hu**

Founder of DelftStack.com. Jinku has worked in the robotics and automotive industries for over 8 years. He sharpened his coding skills when he needed to do the automatic testing, data collection from remote servers and report creation from the endurance test. He is from an electrical/electronics engineering background but has expanded his interest to embedded electronics, embedded programming and front-/back-end programming.

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